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Non Causa Pro Causa

This is the generalized 'cause and effect' error. A good explanation is provided at Fallacy Files, which separates Non Causa Pro Causa into two classes of errors, based on events and types.

We can and often do mistake coincidence for cause and effect when looking at events. However, two events happening even repeatedly in the same relation to one another in time or space may be caused by some third event of which we aren't aware. We can also get the cause and effect reversed. The cause we identify may be only the end of a domino chain of causes and effects. And the events actually may be totally unrelated except in the way we observe them.

We can also mistakenly assume that because one event of type C generally causes another event of type E, that a particular event c caused a given event e. For instance, we know that shooting a gun can cause a wound, but that doesn't mean that Johnny shooting his gun caused Freddy's wound, even if they were in the same vicinity at the time of Johnny's gunshot. Someone else could have shot Freddy, Johnny may have been shooting at Freddy's assailant (so that Freddy's wound was the cause of Johnny's shot), or Freddy's wound may not even be a gunshot wound.

Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc - "with this, therefore because of this"
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc - "after this, therefore because of this"
Texas Sharpshooter - assuming a cluster of data points must have a cause